45
81 г ߳ ٳݳ 16-18 ѳ ۳ ٳ ѳۻ ݻ

    Ǫ г ۳ ٳ ѳۻǰ ݻ ݫ ۳ٵ ݳϳݻ ٵǫ ﳷ ﳷ , ۹ ݳϳݻ ٳ dz ѳ ׳ϳϳ ۳ݻ, ٻ ٳݳ, û, ݳϪ

46
DZ ϳ ۹ ٵ, DZ ﳷ DZ ѳ׳˳ϳ۳ٵ ﳷ:
   ܳ˫ 17-18- ѳ ϳݻ ݳ ˳ѳϳݻ ݻ ٻ˳ϳϳ ﳷ۳ ﳷ۳ ٻ禫 ϳ ݫ ɫ -ϳϳ ݳ۳ ݵ ٳݻ٫ ߳ݳ ݳ ͳͻ ۳ ͳ۳ݫ ٳ۳ ݳ۳ݫ ϳ۳ ۳ݫ ׳۳ ݳݻ٣ ϳ 17-18- ٫ ߳ó ۳ 峷۳ ݳݻ٫ ѳۻ ѳ ݻ ݻ ͳ ݻ

811 г 峷

    1512 é 1759 é ݪ г۳ ųٳݻ ѳۻ 峷 570 ݳ [68] ݹѳ ݳ ѳ ۳ ѳݻǰ ٳ ݳ û ѳ ۳ ٳݫ ٳ ѻ dz ѳ ݣ ݳϫ Ż 1670 ٻͳͳ û ѳ dz 1662 é 峷 1669 é ݳ ѻݳ ϻݹ۳ ѳ ٳϳ [69] ݳ óٳݻ [70]


47
1638 é ճ ѳۻ ݳ ٵ ݹ ٪ ݻ ݻ ѳ ݻ ӻ [71]
    ݫ ݳ ˳ٳٵ ϳ û ճ ݳ ӻ鳷 㹻 ݫ ٻݳ ѳݳϳ۳ٵ ջ 峷 ݳϩ 1759 é ݳ г 峷 ݷ٪ 1683- س٫ 1695- ٫ 1698- ѳݳ ٵ٤ 1735- ٵ ݳ гٹ ѳٳ ߳۳ٵ 1736- ݹ٫ 1752- ݻ [72] 峷ݻ ٻ ɫ ٻ ѳٳٵ ջ ݳϳ ݳ
   ޻ ۹ ٫ ѻ鳵 ó ݹѳ ݳ ѳ ӻ鳷ϳ ݹ ѳ ﳹ۳ ݹϳ
   ػ ϻݻ ѳۻ ݻ Ż û ϳ û ׳ ߳ó ׳ϳ ݻǪ ݻ 峷 1729 é ݹ ٪ ۹ ݻ ݻ

48
ٳ ٵ ѳϳϳ ݻ ۹ ųٳݳ ϳݳ ٻ ϻɫ ݽǰ ѳϳϳ 峷 ݳ ٵ ϳ 1565 é 1748 峷 ݹѳ dz 18- ݤ [73]
   ϻ 1826 éۣ 峷 1708 é [74] 峷 1708 . [75]: л , ѳ ݻ, , ͳ ݳ :

812 г

    18- ۳ٵ ǵ ѳۻ ϳ ٳݦ cultural annihilation [76] ϻ ѳ ٳݳ û ϳ ݻdz ϳ۳ ѳۻ ݻ ݻɦ !!?? -- [77]
   ܳ ߻ ѳ ݳ ӻ鳷 ﳹ 峷 ݫ ųٳݳݻ ó ӻݳ ۳ ѳ , ϳɳ ۳ ݻ ѳ ͳ ߳ó-óϳ

49
ٻͳ ûݳѳ 16-18- ѳۻ ۳ ۳ ٳϳ ϳ ݷ ٳ ݻ ݻ ѳ׳ ѳϳϳ ݻ [78] ݻ ݻ
   15-16- ٫ г۳ ó ݻ ׳ ѳ ߳ ٻ ݳѳ ϳݫ 17- ѳ ó߳ó ݹ û - ݹݫ ϳ ѳٳ ջ ϳ û ɪ г۳ ٻ [79] 0ݳϫ 1653 é dz ݻ 50 ժ ϳ۳ յ ǵ ݻ ۳ͳ 廳 ۳ [] ݳϳ û [80] 1639 é ٳ ݳٳ ÿ릩 ٿ ݩ ѳﻳ ÿ ݩ ٻݻ ٳ ߳ϻݻ - ٻ 30 Ǧ [81] Ż ѳ ٻ ճۻ ϻ dz [82] dzݻ dz dz dzݫ ߳ϻﻳ ճݩdzѳ

50
ݫ [83]гϳϳ ۳ ݻ ٳ ϳ ջ ͳ ճ ٳݳ ˳ѳ ϳ 񳵳 ׳ ٳ ٳϳ ٳ ϳݻ [84] ۳ ٻ ճۻݫ ѻ ǫ ˳ݳ ﳷ ﳷ ѻݳϻ ѳۻ ϳ 1637 é 峷 1725 é ٵ٤ ݳ ٳ 峷 1728 é ٵ٤ [85]
   ճ ϳٻ ѳٳ û ǰ ϳ ߳ݳ ѳ ݳ˳ ۳ ٳ ٻ絻 ݹٻ ٻ ٳϳ ϳݣ 1693 é ٳ 1- ճ ѳ۳ ᷻ ˳ ջϳ ջ ݿٵ ϻջϳݳ ˳ѳϳݳ ճ س dz dzݻ ۳ ϳ ݻ ᷻ ѳݫ ݳϳ ܳѳ ϳ 1691-1705 ݹ ٫ 1636 - ճ ѳ ӻ ݳ 糵ϳ 200 ݳ ٳ ݣ ݹͻ ٻݳ г ϳ ݻ۳ ݳѻ 12 ݳ ϻ ٳݳ

51
ó óϳ-ϳ ɳ ͻ Ż ݫ ѻ ݳϳ ϻ ݽ ϻ ۳ϳ ûٳݦ ٳݤ
 
[ٻݳ г ϳ ѳ ۳ٻݳ ɳ ݿ ٳݳݹ ÿ ٻ ݫ ݳ ճ ۳ ÿ ۳۹ ǣ ݽ ѳ ǣ ݻ ݳ ݷݳ ۳ճ ݻ ٳݿ [86] ݹݻ ݪ
    ݳ˳۳ ͳóݳ ѻ ݻ û ǫ û Ż ѳ 18- ۳ٵ ѳۻ ߳ó ٳݦ ٳݫ ϳ û ǵ ѳۻ dzݳϳݪ ݻ ջɦ not a single people with a clear national sense [87] ݻ ջ ѳ ݷٻ a simple ethnographic conglomerate [88]:

52
    ϳ ݻdz ϳ۳ ѳۻ ݻ ݻݳ ٳ ׳ ѳ ѳ ۳ Ǧ ϳٳٵ ϳݻ ѳ ٳ г۳٫ ݻ۳ ϳ۳ݦ ٳ٫ ѳۻ ٳٵ ݻ ػ س ϳ 5- Ͻݣ г ۳ ݻ ٳ ͳ ϳ [89]: γ , û û ѳϳϳ ݻ ݹ, DZ ϳ ѳٳ ݳ ϳݻ 볷 [90]:
    ݻ ϳ ѳ ѻݳ ϳ ݻ ϳ۳ݫ ۳ ϻͳ۳ ٻ ٳݣ

82 г ɻ 񳵻 ѳ

    ǫ 18- ۳ٵ ѳ ɻ ˳ӳ ѳϳݳ ݻ ˳ ߳ ѻ念 ۳ɪ ѻݳ յ

53
ѳ ݻ ѻ ٻ ߻ ﳷͳ յ ϳ ݳ ߻ 14- 18- Ͱ ջﳵ ųٳݳϳ٦ [91] ѳۻ ӳ ٻͳٳ۳ ٻ ݻ ݳ ۳ ѻ -- -- ϳ ѳۻ ݽǩ
       1 ѳ ɻ ϳݳϳ ϳ ٳϳ ߳ dzݷٳ ϻݹ ݣ ѳ ͳ ݻ ͫ ݳ ݳϳ ϳ۳ ٻ [92]
       2 񳵳 ϳ ѳۻ ߳ݳ ﳷ ǵ ϳ ɻ ݹ 19- ϻ ݪ 20-
       3 ͳͳϳ ݳ ѳۻ 12- ӻ ϳ ɻ ϳ׳, . 鵳 ׳ݳ ӻ ۳ ϳ ɻ:
       4) ˳ ݳ ѳۻ 鵳ݻ ݳѳ۳ ѳ٪ ϳͻ, û ѳۻ ۹ ͳϳ dzݻ ϳ ˳ӳ ѳϳݳǦ ݳ: ݹѳϳ ѻ ˳ӳ ٻ , ѻ ݳ 鵳ݻ ѻ dzݻ ݻ ݳϳ, ϳݳϳ ѳϳݻ

54
, ϳ, ϳ ϳݳϳ ϳ, 񳵳۳ ӻ ٳٵ, ӻ ׻ ͳݻ, 񳵳 ϳ ݹϳ , ɻϳ ݻ, ɻϳ ݻ ɻ ݻ ϻݳ۳ٵ: ݻ ݻ, ͻ û 񳵳, û ѳۻ, û ˳ѳ û ųٳݳϳ ѳۻ ѻ ѻ ˳ӳ ѳ ۳: 񳵳 ϳ ۳ 鵳ݻ, ϳ ѳۻݻǪ ɳѳۻ ۳, ѳۻǪ . 鵳ݻ:
    ѳ ɻ ٳ , ۹ ɻϳ ݳݻ ٵ, ϳɳ ѳ۳ݻ ׳ݳϳ :
   γ ͫ ճ ѳ۳۳ ݻϳ۳ гۻݳ۳ ٳݪ ݫ 糽 ѳ 19- ϫ ݳϫ г۳ ϳdz ٻ 1943 é Ȼ۳ ٵ 1973 é ϳٳ ݳ ˳ 鳷ϳ ɻ 㵳ݻ ѳٳ ݹ ϳݻ ѳۻݳ۳ ݳ 糽 ׳ݳ ݻ ٳݳ ճ ˳ݻ [93]

55
    û ͻ ݳ ѳݷ ѳۻ ˳ӳ ѳϳݳ ݻǦ ٳ ӳ ûݣ ϳ гٳ ճ [94] 1726 é ٻͳ ݹϳ٫ ݷ ݻ ٳϳ ѳ г ݳѳݷ ٻݳ ݳ ѳ ѳ ճݻ ѻ ѳۻ ɻ ﻰ ݳ ۳ ٻ絻
   ӳ ϳݫ ٳϳ ѳ۳ û ѳ ɻ ˳ ߳ ѻ念 û ߳ ݫ ͻɫ û ѳۻ ϳݷݳ ݻ ݻ ݽ ݪ ٳ ݻ ٳ ٳϳ ɳ ݳ ݳ ӻ ݻ û ϳ ݻ ۳ݪ ٳ ǫ ɻϳ ųٳݳϳ٣ ݳ ǫ ٳݻ 񳵻 ϻ -- ݳ ݳݫ ѳۻ ϳ -- ˳ݻ 1928 é ٳٳݦ ݹٻ ݳ۳ ٳݻ ݳϳ ѳϳݳ ӻ dz ճ ѳٳ 0ݳϪ ϳ гٳ ݹ г ˳ݻ ݳ ѳ ͳͳϳ 806 ѳۻ ˳ [95]

56
ٳϳ ݻϳ۳ݻ ۹ ӻ ϳ ϳ û ϳϳ ϳ г۳ ϳ dzϳ ϳٳ ٳ ã
    ݻ û ݹ ϳ ѳ۳ ϳϳ յ ۳ û ѳϩ ѳۻ ϳ ųݻ ݻǫ ٻͳ ٳ ճ ӳ ѳٳջǦ [96] 1990 é ѳ ߳ ϳ۳ ϳ
 
û ݳ˳ ٳ ϳ ͳͻ ݳ ݷɻ ѳݣ Ȼ ѳϳ۳ ˳ ճ ۹ ׳ ѳۻ ͳ ӻ ϳϳͫ 糵 ˳ ճ ѻ ѳ ݳϳ ۳ ٳ [97]
    ݳϳ ǻ гٻٳ

57
ݷɻ ݳ٩ by the eighteenth century [the Armenian] language [was] reduced to mutually incomprehensible dialects and mixed with vocabulary borrowed from the dominant nationality [98] Even today, Armenian can be divided up into eight different dialects, most of which are corrupt and totally incompatible Greek and Latin influence reduced Armenian to a state of extreme confusion [99] ߳ ݻ ٳ߳ ѳݻ ɪ ߳ ѳ
   Ǫ ѳ ٳ ۳ٳ Ǫ ѳ ɻ ۳ ѳӳ 㿣 ݹ񳹳ݳ ѳ ɻݫ ѳٳ ݹ ٩é 1- ѳ ɻ ݳݳϳ ϳٳٳ ó [100] ɫ û ݳݳϳ ɻϳ ϳٳٳ original linguistic formation DZ ѳϳ٫ ϳ ѳ ۳ ݳ ٳݳݻ ݷ ˳ѳ񳷻 ٩é 64-٩é 24 ջ ݫ ٩é 2- г۳ ó۳ ٵ ɻ ѳۻ [101] ߳ݳ û ѳۻ ݳݳϳ ϳٳ ݻ ߳ գ ݳϳ г ٵ

58
ó гϳϳ ɻݳ˳ ѳۻ ٩é 7- [102]
   г ɻ ٳ ٻ ٻݳ ѻû ۳ ӻ ѻ ѳۻ ٩é ѳ۳ ٳݻ ݳ չ ѳۻ ݳ ߻٫ û û ٳ ѳۻǤ ɻ ϳ ݳ ѻ [103] ϳͻ ѳۻ ݹ ݫ û ѳ۳ ó ɻ ݳ ݳϳ ٳ ׳ݳѣ гٻݳ ѳۻ ѳٻٳ ݫ ݫ ɳݻ ɻ ɳݻ ϻ ݷɻ ٩é 7- ϻ ϻ ۻ ۻ ߳ ɻݻ ͳ ѻ ϳ ѳ ϳ ճ۳ ٳݣ
    , ϳϳ óϻ ѳۻ ݳϳ ٳ, ӳݳ, ѳ ۳ 񳵻 dzϳ ݻ ٳݳϳ ϳ ݳɦ ݻ ϳ:

59

83 ջݻ ϳ ۳

    񳹳ݳ ѳ ճݻ ѻ ѳݹٳ ߻ݻ ۳ ѳٳ ϳݻ ۹ dz ٳ ٳϳ ٻṳ۳ ϻ ѳݹӫ ݻ û ݳ ߳ ﳷͻ ݻ ۹ dz յ ϳݻ ѳͳ ݻϳ۳ ݹ ϳ ѳ ݳ ۹ ѳٳ ٵϳ ߳ Щ ʳٳ۳ ѳۻ óٳ۳ٵ ѳٻٳ ݷɻ ݳ ѻ ϳ ٳ 񵳷ݻ 1759 é гɻ ߳ݳ ׳ ѻ ѳ ͳݻ ջ۳ٵ ٳݻ ݳϻ볷 --
 
ݷ- ݻ ݫ ǽݻ ٻ û 500- ϻ ۳ݫ ˳ ɳ ݳ ٻ ٳ ݣ ٳ ٻ ϻ ߻ ѳ ѳݷ ߳ݳϻ ׳ ɳ û ݻ ٳ ѻݹݻ ݻݦ ӷ ݻ ٻ ѳ ų ݳ ѳ ѳϳϳ ݳݻ ѻͳͫ ϳͻ û

60
 
ѻͻɳ trooper ɻ ɫ ߳ ϳ ѳӳ ͻ ݣ ݳϳ ѳ û 廱 ѳٳӳϻ ׳ ϳǫ ۳ ݻ ۳ ɻ ɻ ѻ ݳ ճݻ ߻ ѳ ѳݻ ϻ ˻ ݻ ѳ ճݻ ϳ ѳ ݳ ٻ ٳݻ û ݻ ɻ ۹ ٳ ѻ ѳݻ ѳ 0ٳݻݫ dz ׳ ϳ ճݳ ٻ ϳ񷳹۳ ѳٳӳ ӻݳ ߻ ǻ ݻ ٻݳ ݳͳ ճ ѳٳ ˳ û ɳ ӻ ݣ ɳ ѳٳ ٳ ٻ ٳ ó ճ յ dz ѻ ۳ ٻ ݳݫ ͳۻ ѳٳ ճ ϻݻ ݣ ۹ ߳ǫ ٳ۳ ɳ ׳߻ɩ ѳۻ ѻ û ճ ϳ񷳹ûݻ ϳ߳ ѳ ۹ ٻ ݹѳ ӻ ׳ݻ ݫ ٻ ݳ ѳ ջ ۹ ۳ٵ ߳ ݷ ѻ ݻ ٻŻ ٳ ׳ ݳ ϻ ǻݫ ۹ ϳݳ ˻ ٻ ٳݻ ɣ ׳ ճݻ ѳݷݳ ݻ

61
 
ݫ ٳۻ ջ ߳Żݫ ߳ ѻ ۳ݻ ϳϻ ӻ ݻ ٻ ٳѳ ݻݳ 鳽 ݳ ӻ ϳ ó ݻݳ ˳ ճ ݫ ٻ ݹ ˳ ٻ ó Ʊ ۹ ӻ û ۹ ϻջ г û ѳ ٳٻϳݻ ճ ˳ ɻ ۹ ݳ ѳ۳ û ٻ ߳ ݳ ٻ ݹɦ ϳݻ ݫ ٳ ӻ ѳݻ٫ û ݻ û óǹ ˻ ݫ ߳ݳϻ ܳ ѻ ۳ ӻ ٳ ѻ٦ л ݻ ѳݻ ݳ ϳ ѳݳ ϻ ѳ óݻ ݹ ύ ۳ ճݻ ݳݻ ۳ݻ ͳ --
߳ݳϻ ׳ ѳݳ ݹ Ǧ ݻ ϳ ٳϫ ݻ ˳ݻ ٻݹ۳ٵ ѳٵɣ ѳ ݻ ۹ ݻ ѳ ٻ ˳ݹճ ݻ ٻ ݹ۳ յ ϳŻ ϳ ׳ ϻ ѳݳ ۳ յݻ ѳ ѻ ϳ ٳ ٳ ܻ ػ[104] ٳ û 630

62
 
ٻ ٻ ѳѳݻ ӻݫ ٻ ٻ ݳݻݩ ٳ 666 ϳǩ638 ݩ ݳ 28 ݻ ѳٳ ٻ ѳɳͳ л ٻ ɳ ˳ ϳ ɳ ٻ ѳѳ [105]
    ߳ ϳݻ ݻ û a la ǫ ٳ ѳϳ ۳ٵ
       1 ѳ ճݻ ϳͻ ݫ û ѻͻɳݦ frightened out of their senses ٳ󳵳 ݫ ٳݳݹ ѻ ݫ ٻӳϳ ݳ ϳ ٳ ۳ ݻ ѻ ϳճ ٳ۳ ٻ ϳ ǰ ݳݹ ݻɣ
       2 ѻͻɳ -- -- ѳ ѳ ճݻݫ û û ݻݳ ϳ ó ݻ ݳϳݫ ѻ ͪ ѳ 0ٳݻݦ their fidelity to the Othmans dzݷٳ ѳϳݳ ѳٳ˳

63
ٳ۳ ѳ۳ݪ ޳dz ɳٳϳ Ǥ ϳݻ ݳϳ ѳݫ -ٳٻϳݻ ݳݹ۳ ٳٻϳݻݣ ϳ ٳ ѳϳݳ ѳٳ ٳ ݷ ٳݳ ٻ ѳ٣ dzɳϳ ٳ ٳݳ ݻǫ - ׳ݻ ٳ۳ ˳ ٳ ѳٳ ݳ˳ -ٳ ٻ ѳݹ û ٻ ó ϳݫ ٳݳ ׳ϳ ݳϩ û ٻ 1950-1980-ϳ é ۳ ǵ ύ ۳ ۳ ٳdzݻ dzٳ ѳݻ û ϳ ݻ ۹ ٳ ݻ ѳ ɳٳݳϳ ѳ ͳݻ ѳ ݻ ۹ ٳ ˳ݻ ˳ݻ ѳ ճݻ ݳٳݳݹ û ۹ ٳ ѳٳ - ɳٳݳϳ ζ-Ǥ ճ ͳϳɣ
        3 ѳ ճݻ ѳϳݳ ٳݳϳ ϻ ѳٳ ݳݫ û ǵ

        ѳۻ ݫ г۳٪ ѳ٫ ݽǫ ѳ ٻ ٳ ٻ г۳ ѳϳ ѳ ݷݻ ٻ [106] ǫ ѳݹ ѳ ճݻ

64
ٳϳ٦ ѳۻ ٻͳٳ ٳɫ ۳ ϳ ϳ ݻɫ ݽ ѳ ۳ ٳ ݻ ݦ ݳ ݳ ۳ ݹݻ ٳ ٻ۳ ѳٳݻ ݻ ٻݳ߳ ͳ 볷 ٻ ѳ ﳹ ѳ۳ [107]
    ϳ ϳݫ ѻݳ ۳ ۳ٵ dz ϳ ɫ г۳ ۳ݫ ѳϳ ٻ۳ ݳϳݫ ٳ ٳϳ ݻ ٻ ݳϣ ۳ ٳ ϳ ٻݳѻݳϳ ݳ ѳٳ ٵ ۳ݦ 6- ѳ ݹ 1335-1735 é ϳ ųٳݳϳѳ г۳ ݹٻ ݷ 59 419 1735-1991 é ߳ 7- ѳ ѳٳ г۳ ѳ ͳ ѳݻ ݹѳ ͳ 2100 ݳ ǫ û ѳٻٳ û ݷ ߳ϻɫ ݳϫ 6-٪ 59 71 75 79-80 163 172 245-6 268-9 285-6 296 309 327 7-٪ 20 47 95 97 114 126-131 136 159 517 583 299-300 305 311 315 317-319 325 327-34 365 374 377 379 381-3 385 583 601 706 [108]

65
    г۳ ۳ ٳݻ ѻ ϳ Ͻݳյݻ ۹ ͳ ѳݻ ۳ ٳݳ ۳ ݳϳݻ ѳݹ г۳ ϳ Ͻݳյݻ ٻ ǩ ٻ ͳ ۳ 񳵻 14-19- ϳ յݻ ӳ ٻͳٳ ߳ ͳ г۳ݪ ǫ ٳ۳ ݻ ٻݻ ٳ 㿰 г۳ ݻ [109]
        ݳ ݹ û ѳۻ ﳷ ݻɣ ѳٳӳ ٳ񳵳 ݳ ѳ ٳݻ ѳٳ ݫ û ǵ ѳۻ ݹѳ ߳ݳϻ ݻ ݹϳ ۳ ϳ۳ ӷݻ Armenian historians write as if Armenians continued to maintain their traditional national consciousness and aspirations for freedom and independence [110] ϻ

66
ճ ٻ ٵ ۳ ѳݣ ݹ񳹳ݳ ѳ ﳷϳ ߳ݻ ۳ ѳѳ ݫ ϳ ݻ ٳ ٳϳ ݳݻ 볷٣ dz -- -- ϳݻ ٳݣ
   ݫ û ݹݳ ջ ѳϳݳ ѳ ճݻ Ͻݳϳ ׳ݻ ٻ ݻݷ۳ݫ ݳ ջ ٳ ѳ ٳݫ ۳ݦ ٻ ѳ ѳ ݻ ۳ ۳ ٳݫ ٻݳѻݳ ѳ ճݻ ݹݻ ݳ ᷻۳ٵ ˳ݹ۳ٵ ٳϫ ݻ ˳ݻ ٻݹ۳ٵ ѳٵɣ ݩٻ ˳ݹճ ݻ ٻ ݹ۳ յ ϳŻ ϳ ׳
   л û ۹ ѳ ճݻ ݫ ۳ ϳ ݻɫ ѳݫ ݷ ѻͻɳݦ ݫ ݫ û ٪ ٻ ߳ ݳ ٻ ݹɦ ۳ ˳ ϳ ϳ ߳ ɳ ݫ г۳ ѳѳ ٳ ݳ ۹ ݣ ػ ϳ۳ ѳٳ ݻ ٳ ٳϳ ջݻ ݳϫ ѻݳ ۳ǵ ɻǪ 1649 é

67
1732 é 峷 ѳ-ٳ- ϳ ػ г ϳ ǫ γ ǫ г ٳ dz -- ݳ س ݳѳݷݻ ݫ ݳ г۳ ٳճ ɳ г ۳ ۳ݻ dz٤ [111] ѻ ٳݫ ѻݳ ϳ ۳ ݻǫ ѳۻ ݹdzǦ ˳۳ [112] , 1957 . ǵ-ɻ ٳ 3000-۳ ϳ۳ٵ ϳ ѳ-ٳǦ 񳵻۳ ݳ۳ ٻ ѻݳϳ ٻdz ٳ ߳ ݳ ӻ ۳ ݳdz [113]:
    ٳ ϳɦ DZ ߳ݳ ѳ ѳݳ ѻ۳ û ﳷ ӷ٩ ѳ

68
ѻ ϳ ٳ ٳ ܻ ػ ٳ û 630 ٻ ٻ ѳѳݻ ӻݫ ٻ ٻ ݳݻݦ 峪 ݳ 28 ݻ ѳٳ ٻ ѳɳͳ л ٻ ɳ ˳ ϳ ɳ ٻ ѳѳ
       4 ѳ ճ ǫ û DZ ܻ ߳ ܳ ͳ ѳ۳ ѳϳϳ ߳ݻ ݻ ۳ ݻ ѳ ﳷϳ Ǧ ϳ ٳϳ ݳ۳ ѳ ݫ 1957 ݳ ѳ ݳ۳ ﳷϳ ճ۳ ݦ г ﳷϳ ɻݹ [114] ݫ г۳ ﳷ۳ 10- 18- ѳ ݳ˳ǫ ϳ ݷݻ ٻ Ȼݹ ٳ ݻ ˳ г۳ ó ۳ ϳݷ ϳ dz ۳ ѽ ۳ٵ 糽 ۳ ݻ ѳ ݪ Ͻ ݹݻ ݻ ݪ ϳ ݻ ߪ ݻ Ȼݹ ݳ ݻ ϳ˳߳ ݫ ۳ ﳷ ݳݻ г۳ ٳݻ ϳ ٳݻ ݪ ѳ ػ ó 298-330 Ͻ ճ ѳ ݻ ųݷݻ [115] ѳݳ

69
ѳ ߳۳ٵ ݳ˳ г۳ ﳷ ϳͻ ݳ ͳ ջ ѻ ٳݻ ߳ ɻݹ ݣ Ȼݹ ߳ ϳ ݻ ݩ г۳ ݻ ݳ ۳ ۳ ߳ݳ ѳ ݷݻ ۳ ۳ ϳ ó ݻݳ ٳݣ ݪ ѳ ﳷϳ ɻݹ ӳݳ ѳ ٳݳ۳ ٻ ٳ ϳ յݻ٣ ɳ л ݻ ׳ݳ г۳ 1699 é ӳݳ ɻݹ ݻ ٻ ۻɳ ϳ
 
ٳ۳ ѳٳӳݫѳۻ ѽ ݩųٳݳ ó٩ ݻ

70
 
ϳ ó ݻ ˳ ٻϫ ݻ ųٳݳϫ ݳѳ ó۳ ѳ ϳ ó ϳݷݻ ó ѳۻ ݻ 񳹳 ջ ݳϳ ϳ ۹ ó ѳۻ ٳ ݻ ػdz [116] ݹ --
    ջݻ ߳ ݫ ѳۻ ͳ ɻݹݫ ϳ ϳ ݻ ѳ ٻ [117] ߻ û ѻ ϳ ٻ ϳɣ 1763 é ųٳ ˳ݫ -
 
ٳ ѳ ׳ϳݻɻ ѳ ϳݫ û ٳ ٻ ݳѳ ߳ϳ ѳ [118] ݻ dz ݳٳ ϳ [119]

71
   Ȼݹ ۳ٵ ѳۻ г۳ ˳ݦ ݵ 몵礫 ٻݳ г ˳ݦ ٻͳ۳ ׳ ϳ ѻٳ ۳ ˳ݳ ˳ݳ ˳ݦ л ó ݳٳ 14/25 ۻٵ 1762 é ݳ ݹ ͳ ۳ ˳ǹ ճǹ [120]
    ϳ ٳݳϳ û ٻ ѳٳݫ ϳ ɳ ݳ ϳ ݻ û ѳۻ û ɳѳۻ ϳ ᷻ ݻ ٵ ݳ˳ݻ ݻɣ 1763 é ݳٳ γ ѳ ׳ ᷻ϳݤ [121] ѳ
 
ݻٻ ճͣ ߳ ճ ӻ ߳ѳ ӻ ѻϳ ۳ٵ ѳٳϻ ϳ ѳۻ dz λdz dz񩩩 쳱 -- ݫ ݩ ݻݫ 񩩩ӻ ٳ 40000 ٳݻ ݻ ٳݳ dzݳ ٻ [122]

72
ϳ ٳݳ ٳ ٳٳݻ ݻ ٫ ϳ٪ ۹ 㷻񳽳 ٳϳ ѻﳽ۳ ٻ ϳ ѳݷ۳ ϳ ѳ۳ ѳ ݳ ٻݳ 1945 1989 é [123] ųٳݳ 񳵻 Ͻݳյݻ ݳݻ
    ߻ ݳ ѳۻǪ ﳷϳ ݻ ݻݳ ٳ ϳݦ ݻ
        ݷ ۳ ݳ ϳ ۳ ٳݫ ϳ۳ ۳ ϻݳϳ ûٳ ٳ ݻ ݹ ٻ ݹ ٫ ݷ ӳݳ ׳ݳݻ 16- [124]
   ݳ ѻϳ ѳ ǵ ݳ ٳ ի ٳ ݻ ݻ ջ ѳϳ -٣ г ϳ ݳ ߻ ѻϳ ѳ ϳ۳ ǫ ѳ ǫ ѳ ѳٳ˵۳ݫ ѳϳϳ ճ۳

73
ٻݳٳ ѳ û ѳϳ ѳ ݷ񳷻-ݳϳ ѳ ѳ ϳ ٳݳ ݳ ߳Ϧ ٳݳ ɻ ͳ ϻ ѳݳϳݫ ϳݫ ݻ ճݻ ݪ ٳ ݻ ﳹ ϳ ݳ г ǵ 볷 ˳ ϳͻɫ û ݷͳ ջɫ ٳ ջ ͻ ѳϳɫ û ѳݳ ѳ ѳ ϳݷݻ ٫ ٳ ѳ׻ ջ ѳ ٳ ϳ ݳϪ ǫ ٳݻ ѳٳ
        ٵ 1720-ϳ é ѳ ٳ ѳϳϳ -ѳϳϳ յݻ ۳ Ȼݳѳ۳ Գ񳵳 γ ѳݻ 鳽 30000- 60000- ѳ ϳ dzݻ ϳ ׻ [125] γ , ѳ ۳ ۹ ѻ ųٳݳϳ ٻ۳ ѳ۳۳ݦ ѳٳ ݳ ϳϳ terra incognita` ͳ : - ѳ 18-

74
۳ ٳݳ ۳ ᵻ - ݷﳵ Գ񳵳 γ ٳݻ ݹ ݳ ѳϳϳ Գ񳵳 , ջϳݻ ѳ ݪ ӳ ϳ г-ɳ۳, Գ񳵳 ѳ ˳ ٳݳ[126] -, ³˳- :
   ݹѳ ٳٵ ٻϳ ѳ۳ݻ ߻ 1720-ϳ . ѳ ѳ ϳ ݳ۳ ϳ ݻ ۹ ٳ ճ ѳ ݷ û ߳ ݻϳ۳ݻ: ϳ ѻ ϳݦ 񳵻, ϳ, ׳ : ܳ˪ ۹ ѳۻǪ ϳϳ ϳ ϳݳ Ż ۳ 鳽ٳϳ ѳóݳݻ [127] ѳ ѳۻǪ ٳݳ ݻ -ݳ-dzϳ ѳϳ ٳ ٳϳ ݻ: , , û,

75
ϳ ѳݷٳ , ݹ ۹ ճϳ ѳݻ ϻ ݳ ٻϳ ѳ۳ݻ ݳϳݳ ϳݳ ѳݷٳ ѻ 1720-ϳ . ǽ ѳ-ϳ 鳽ٳճϳ ѳٳͳ۳ ٳ. ÿ ۹ ѳٳͳ ٳϳ dz ܲ-ϳ ݳ : ݪ ۹ ѳٳͳ۳ ϳ ݹ ѳϳ ۳ ٻ Ǫ ݻ ѳۻ ϳ Ϫ : 1991 . г۳ ϳ˳ݳ ѳ-ϳ ݹϳ 鳽ٳ-ճϳ ѳٳͳ ͻ ϳ 鳽ٳ-ճϳ , ݷ ѳݹ ǵ ݹ ܲ- ۳ ݻ ݹɳٳ ѳٳ: γ ϳϳͻ, -ѳϳϳ ݹϳ 鳽ٳճϳ ѳٳͳ ŷ û Ǫ ѳ ٳݻ ѻ۳ ݳ, û ӻ ݻ г۳ ϳ, ϳ ٳݻ ߳ ߳ѳͻ 18- Գ񳵳 ٻݻ ϳ ϳ٪ ϳ ϳ۳ ѳۻ ѳٳ ջ ϳ ٳ, ѳۻ ٻͳٳ۳ ѳٳ ݹ ߳٦ (In their efforts to legitimize the present links between Russia and Armenia, Soviet historians have made much of the Russian orientation of the eighteen-century meliks of Karabakh in fact the Russian orientation was neither a consistent attitude of Caucasian Armenians nor a widespread movement among the majority of Armenians) [128]:

76
       5 ɪ ﳷϳ ϳٳٵ ѳ ϻջϳ ݻ ݻ ٳ ٳݣ ߻ݻ ݳѳϳݻ гۻ ϳ ѳۻ ٻ ճ ѻݳݻ ѳϳ ᷻ϳݻ
    ѻ ѳ ݳݻ ٻ ﳷϳ ߳ٳ ﳷ ϳٳϻ ݳ ѳ ٻݳ׳ ᷻ϳݻ 1720-ϳ é ﳷϳ ߳ٳ ٻݳѳ ջϳݻ ӳ ѳ ϳ г-ɳ۳ +1728 ݳٳݻ ٻ 24 ٵ 1718 é ϳ ѻ۳ óٳ۳ٵ
 
, (г۳ ` . .) , !..., , , , , , , ! [129]
    ϳ 20- ѳ ٳ 㿫 ϳ ﻪ ϳ ٻճ ѳۻ ﳷϳ ݻ ٻ
    ѳ ᷻ϳ۳ ϳ۳ݦ û ݻ ѳ 1723 é 2- dz ɳ

77
ͳ гٳ ϳ 1715-1725 ٻճ ÿ ٻ =ѳǤ ˻ ɫ ˳ ϳݷݳɫ ݫ ÿ 60 000 ˳ ѳ = [] [130] ѳ ϳ ٻճ ϳϳ ˳۳ dz ݻϳ۳ [131] ٵݻ ٻݻ ݳ ݩ ٳݳݻ ѳ ׳ݳ յ [132] ѳٳӳݪ ٻ ϳ ٳ ͳ гٳݪ ѳ ϳ =۳ݤ ˻ ۫ ۳߳ = ɿ ٦ [133] 1720-ϳ é ѳ ٳ ճ ٳݳݻ ٻ ջ ٻݳ г ϳ ѻ ٳ ᷻ϳݻ ݻ ݹ ٫ ۳ ۳ ջݻ ѳ յǪ ɳݻ ųٳݳϳ۳ݦ ۳ ٳݫ û ѳ dz ѳۻ ݳ ɻ ݷɻ óٳݻ ﻰ 104-107 ͳóݻ
    ٳٳ ݹ񳹳ݳ г۳۳ ϻջ ѳ û ѳ۳

78
û ˳ ݳ˳߳ ѻóϳ ϳ ˳ݻ ѻ ϻջ ߳ ɳ 񩩩 ݳ˳ û ѳۻ ٳݳ г ϻջ ٳ ݻ ѳٳ ѳٻٳ г ϻջ ݻ ѻ ϻ ϳ۳ݫ -ѳϳϳ ϻջݻ ջ 糹 ݳ˳߳ݻ ӻ񵳽ͣ ϳ ٳ -лݻ ϳݻɣ г ϻջ ݻ ɫ ٳϳ ۳ٵ ϳ ٳݳ ѳݻǦ гٳ ˳ ǽɫ ѳ ݳϫ ˳ѳͳ ϳ ϻջ ǽdz 񳹳۳ ṳǤ ٳݻ ۳ ѳ ٳϳ 1481-1808 é dz 볳dz٪ ǽ 35000 ٳ 񳹳 ӳݳ 1826 é ɻdz- [134]
    ѳݻ ߳ ߳ݳ 1230 ϳ é ϳ г۳ ɳ ϳݪ ۳ ݳ 񳽵ݫ ϻ г ϻջ ϳݻ ٳ ݻ
 
г [᷻] ݻ ϳ-: ݳ ݻ ݻ ݳѳ ϻϳݻ ݹݫ ݻ ϻ- ݳϻ ٳ ٫ ɳ ݳϳ ɳ ˳ѳϳݫ ۷ ϻ ѳ٫ û ϳ ѳ ݻ ݷ Ż ݣ ϳ ߳

79
 
ѳ ۳ݻ ٻ ϳݻ ѳ ѳ ٳ ǣ ѳ ˳ ϳ- û ߳ ٳ߳ ﷻ ɳ û ϻ ߳ û ٳ߳ͣ ѳ ų ϻ ѳ ݳϳݻ ٻͳ ѳ ǩ
ݳϳݻ гݻ ǫ ˳ݻ ѻݳ۳ٵ ǵ ѳݻ ϻݫ Ƿ ܳdzݽ ջݹǣ ջ ϳ ˳ѳϳ ϻջ ٻ ݻ dz ϳû ϳ ϻ ϳ ݻ ݣ ٻ ͳջ ϳ ߳ ݻݳ ϻջ ٻ ѳݳ ٳ ݻ ϳݳ ջɰ
ϳ ϻջ ٻ:
۹ ٻ ݳϻ ݻ ˳ѳϳݻ ջݻ ݳ-ϳݻ ϳͻ û ѳ ɳ ٻ ٻ ݻ [135]
߻ ݳ 17-18 ݳ ϳݻ ݻ û 1629-1632 յϻ 1632-1655 г ճۻ 1655-1680 ջݹ ճۻ 1705-1715 ͳ гٳ 1715-1725 ٻ 1763-1780 ѳóѳ ٳ ݻ dz ݻ 1771 é ͳ 1776 é ݫ ݣ г۳ ϳ۳ ѻ ѳ ϻջ ׳

80
ϳ ٳϳ ųٳݳϳ ɫ ϻջݫ ݪ ǫ ϳ ѳ۳ٵ ݻ ϳ ۹
   ѳݹӪ ٳٳ ٻݳݻ ٻ ϻջϳ ݻݩ û ˳ ߳ ߳ݳ ͻ ۳ ٳ۳ ׳ ٻ ϻջ û 20- ѳݹ ѳ ϻջϳ ݻ ѻ л ѳٳ Ǫ г ϻջ ۳ ݳѳϳݻ ѻ ٻ ׳ ջ 1996 é ٳ ٳݳ ǽ ϳ۳ͪ г ϻջϳ ٳϳ ۳ݣ
       6 ٻ ϳ ջݻ ϳ۳ٵ ó ǵ ϳͳݹ adventurer [136] ݷɻ dz ϳ ٳݻ óٳݻ ߻ ߳ѳϳ ϳݻ ϳͳݹ۳ ٻ ٳϳ [137] 㹻 ݻ ϳ۳ ѳݳ ݳ ݳϳ ߳ ݷ ѳ ݳ˳߳ Ǫ г۳ ﳷ ѳٳ ϳݫ dz ѳ

81
۳ ٳݻ ӻ ϳϻɣ ѳٳ ϳ ۳ ٻ ٳϳ ˳ ϳ ѳ ﳷϳ ߳ٳ ݻ ѳϩ dzɳϳ ݹݻ ݻ ݫ ݳϫ ٻ ϳ ٻ٪ ӳ ٵݻ ٳݻ Social bandits and brigands, like Avo Van or Arabo and Micho near Taron, became rebels and freedom-fighters)[138]
    ݻ ѳ û Ż ѳ ۳ ǫ ٫ ϳ

9 г ճ۳ ٻ


   г ճ۳ ݳ - û ѳ ׳ݳ ٳݻ ݫ ٻݳ ݳ۳ٵ ѳ ٻͳ յ۳ 糽ݫ dzɳϳ ٳ ׳ݻ ٻ ߳ ѳϳ ѳ ۳ ճ ˳ݻ dz

82
ݳ ϻͳݻ ݫ ճ ϳ ճ ճ۳ û г ϳ 㻽 ѳϳϳ-ٻ ݹϳ ݻ ݻ ٻϳ ճݻ ߳ ѳ۳۳ dz ٻϳѳ ѳٳ ѳ۳ ϩ ϻͳݻ 񳵳 ѳϳѳ ٫ ݹ ٪ ݳ -ѳ ϳ߳ ݳϳݻ ϳݫ ٻ۳ ϳdzϳ ѳϳ-ճϳ ݳݻ ٳݤ ߳ ݻϳ dz ѻ 鳽ٳ- ûɻ ϳ ϻͳ û ٳ ѳóѳ ѳٳ [139]:
   廱 ݳѳ ѳ ճ۳ ѳ ճ۳ ݳ ɫ ϳ ϻͻ ճ۳ ٳϳ ٵ ݳ ѳ ٪ ϻͳ۳ ٻ ɫ ݷ 㿱

83
        dz ϻ٩ ﳷ ѳ س ϻ 񹳷ϳ ۳ݻ dzݫ û ٳ ѻ س ݳ г ճ۳ ϳ ٳ a demographer sympathetic to Turkish denial of the Genocide [140]
   ѳ ݳϳ 񹳷ϳ ݫ ǰ ûݩ
 
1912 é -ٳٻϳݻ ϳ ݳdz ݳ۳ ݹٻ 17%- [141]
    û 17%- ѳݻ ݻݫ ݻݫ ݻ -ٳٻϳݻݫ ѳۻ ϳٻ û ݪ ѻ 񳹳 ճǹ ɣ ݫ ѳۻ ѻ۳ ճ ջ ϳݫ ݳ˪ ջ û - г۳٫ dz ݵųݻ ٳ ϳ ݳdz٩ ѳۻ ϳٻ ۹ ݻ٫ ϳ ճ۳ dz ѳ ݻϳ۳ݻ ųٳݳϫ ٪ ݻݳ ϳ ϳգ
    ٳϳ ϳ ܳ˫ г ճ ٻݳݻ ݳdz ﳷ ߻ ûݫ ѻ ѳۻ ݳ ϳ ݻݳ û ݳdzǫ ۳ г۳ ٳϳ ѳϳϳ ɳۻݻǪ ǫ ǫ ʳǫ dzǫ ݻ٣ ۳ ѳ ٳ ݻ

84
ٳϳ ˳ݻ ۳ ɳۻݻ ѳۻ ϳٻ ѳ ݳ۳ 36-41%- ѳ񳵻ϳ ٻͳٳ - ٵ ѳٻٳ۳ٵ 㹻 ݳϫ ϳ٫ ѳۻ 60 %- [142] ݹ , 1912. ۳ݻ ۳ г۳ ݳ˳ճݳϳ 񹳷ϳ ѳ ݹݻ ϳ, ѳ ճ۳ ó٪ 1890-ϳ ., , ٳٻϳ ѳ ѳ ѳۻ: ۹ ѳٳ˳ѳ ٻͳ : ݪ ϳ ݳϳ ٳѳٳݻ ۳ݻ ϳ ݹݻ ǵ ۳ г ٳϳ 񹳷 ѳ ųݳѳ յ, ۳ ٻ ѻݳݻ: ųٳݳ ݻ ׳ ۳, ó -гǹ ѳ ѳݷ ٳѳٳ ϳݻݪ ۳ (kasden) ϳ ѳۻ ݳ ٻ ϳ ѳϳϳ ݳ۳ , ӻݻ, û ѳۻ ݻݦ: ػ

85
ѻݳ ݹ , ϳ ݳϳ ٳ ݳѳݷݻ, ݳϻ ѳۻ [143]:
   ݪ ۳ ݦ ٻٻ ٻ ݷ ߻ û ݳdz٦ ٳϳ ݻ dz ݻݳ
 
19 ѳ ݳϳݻ ѳ ۹ ٳ ݳdz ϻ ǵ ѳ [144] ݳϳݻ ˳ݻ : ݹ

[Armenian nationalists made such a claim in the late nineteenth century, and Turkish nationalists reponded] [145]
    ѳϳٳ ѳ ݳϳݻ ϻ ݳ ϳ ݳdzݣ ݳ ó ϣ ѳ ݳϳݻ - ˳ճɣ ϳϳ ѳ DZ ٣
    ѳٳ ϳ û 1915-1918 é ó ػ ջ ݳ ѳۻ ճϳ

86
ѳݻ ѳݻ ߳ -- 600000- 1000000- [146] г۳ - ٻ ϳ 1915-1916 é ѳ ѳ 1500000 ѳ۫ ٻ 1915-1922 é 600000- 1500000 ѳۻ ٳ[147] 1993 é û 1915-1922 é ѳۻ ݻ ݳѳ 600000- 2500000 [148] Ʊ 볫 û ϳ ǽ٫ ѻݳ ӷϳ ݻ ѳٳ ݻ ٳݻ dz ûѳ г ջ ѻ ٻϻ ϳٳٵ
        г ճ۳ ѳ ϳ ϻͳ۳ ѳ ߳ݳϳ ѳϩ
 
dz 1915 ݪ ϳ۳ ͳٳ ݻ ݫ ɳݻ ݳݻ ٫ 0ٳ۳ ϳ ߻ ͻ гϳϳ ѳ 鳹ϳ ϻг ճ ݹ ׳ѳ ٳ û ٳ ϻ ϳ ٳ 񩩩 ݹ ѳ ݹͳ ݷɻ ݳ -- Rather than a long-planned and carefully orchestrated program of extermination, the

Armenian Cenocide was more a vengeful and panicky act of suppression) [149]

87
    ݹ 1915 é ػ ջ 1 ݳ˳ 2 ٳ ϻ ϳ ٳ ɪ 3 ѳۻ ݻ ٳ ݹ ٳϳ ׳ ճϳ ᷻ݳϳ ݻ [150] ճ۳ ϳ ˳ û ϳ ϻͳݻ ݳ [151] л ٦ ѳ ճ ݻ ճݣ ٻ絻 ѳ 1996 é ٳ ϳ ߳ ϳ񳵳ݤ [152] 1995 é - г ճ۳ ѳ ٳݳ ѳ ۳ ճ ˳ ۳ ó ϳ ϻݻ ѳϳ ѳ ϳݫ ٳݳϳݫ dzϳ ݷdzϳ ݻ -- ݳ û ϳ ۳ ݳ ݻ ٳ ݳݻ ݻϳ۳ ϳ [153]

88
۹ ݹ 1890-ϳݻ ѳ ǵ ճ[154] ݳ ٳϳ ѳ ٳ 1915 ϳ ϳٳϻ г ٻ ջ гǹ ѳ۳ ѳ۳ ճϳ۳ ߳ݳ ݳϳ ٳѳ ݫ ѳ û ݳ ٫ ݳϫ 1894 é ٳݩ
 
1894 é ѳۻ ݻ ݻ ѳݷ ϳ ۳ ѳ ѳۻ ۳ ѳۻ ϳɻ ǵ ߳ 1915 é ճ۳ٵ -- 1894-1896 é ϳ ǵ ó гǹ - ϳϳ ѳ񳵻ݻ ѳ ϳݷݻ ӣ

[In 1894 clashes between Kurds and Armenians in Sassun led to the intervention of state troops and killing of hundreds of

89
 
Armenians. This violence would later be read by Armenians as the first stage of a series of massacres that would culminate in the genocide of 1915. But the massacres in eastern Anatolia can be seen as part of an effort by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore an old equilibirium in interethnic relation] [155]
Ǫ ϳ ݦ ѳ-ϳ ݻݫ û ѳݹ ϻ û ز- ѳ ˳ճճϳݦ ۳ٵ ٻݳ ݽǫ ݳϫ ѻ ۳ ۳ ۹ ٵ ˫ ٫ ݳϳ û ٳ ճ ϳٳϻ ϳ ϳ ݻ ٻݳϽ ϳ ٳݳ ϳ ѳ ϳ [156]
    г ճ۳ ٻݳ ϳ ϻ ǵ ϳ ǽ ϳ ݳϫ ճ۳ ӻϳ ׳ݳ ѳ ݷݻ ݳ ݳϳǦ ݻ ѳ ۳ ϻͳ û ݻ ݻ ѳٳ
    , - ϳ ѳ ճ۳ ٻݻ: 1986 . ۳, г۳ ݻ ٦ , dz, .
 
ճ : ܳ 񳵻 гϳϳ ջ , [ϳ] ٻ ѻ ɻ:

90
 
ϻ ٳ ѳϳϳ ճ۳ -] ճ񳵳ݳϳ ٳݻ ϳ ݳϳ۳ ٻ ݳϳ ٵϳ : յ ѳϳͣ ݹɫ û ϳ ݻ ѳۻ ӻݳ ѳ۳ ׳ѳ۳ ٻ 18 ߳ݳ ٳݻ ճ ϳݳݻ ٻ ˳ݳ ٳϳ ݪ ۹ ѳ ˳ 㹻 ݻ ߳ ݳ 㹳 dzϳ ͳ ݳѳ гϳϳ ճ۳ ݻ ͳͳգ

[Suny does not differentiate between massacre and genocide He treats the Armenian holocaust as a massacre with a larger number of victims Its ideological roots in Turkish nationalism are never mentioned Its deliberateness is ignored Its finality overlooked Its tragedy trivializedTo contend that "Turkish actions against the Armenians were taken in dispersion and panic" p 8 is to minimize the guilt" responsibility" and inhumanity of the perpetrators of the genocide Besides" the statement is falsethe facts so evidently show a very clear plan of action" executed with efficiency and not halted until fully implemented I found Sunys analysis of the genocide of the Armenians disturbingly shallow] [157]
   гϳ߳ϳ ۳ ݳ ٻ۳ ѳ۳۳ݦ ߳۳ ٳ ɫ ݳ ݹٻ ӳ ۳ݳǦ ٻϳѳ ѳϳϳ ݳݻ ϳٳϻݻ ݷﳵ ߳ݳϻ ߳ٳ ٻͳ ٻϻݳ [158]:

91

10 ܳ ѳ۳ó۳ ٻݳݻ

    ճ ݳ ѳ ߳ ϻ ӳ û ٵ ݳݳϦ [159]: ϳݫ 񽳵ݻ ٻݳϳ ݫ û 廱 ѳ۳ó ϳ 1920 é ٳ óϳݻ ϳٳϻ ѳϳϳ óճٳ ٳ ٳݣ ߳ ϳ û ϳݻ ѳ۳ó ջ - ݳϳݫ ݳ ׳ݳ
   ݹ񳹳ݳ ܳ 񹳷۳ ݫ ٳٳݻ Գ񳵳ǫ ܳ ߳ ٻ ۳ٵ ݳݳ Unlike Karabakh, Nakhichevan was very largely Azerbaijani in population [160] ٻ ݳ û 1926 é ܳ ѳۻ ϳ ݳ۳

92
dz 15%- [161] γ 񽳵ݻɫ û ӳݳ 1926 1917 ϳ ѳۻ ϳ ܳ ݳ۳ 40% [162] ܳ ݻ ߳ ٻ ۳ݦ ٳ ݻ ϳ ݳ ׳ ݳ۳ ݳ 60%- ϳ û ݻ ۳ 1920-ϳݻ 1960-ϳݻ ϳ ųٳݳϳѳ ó٫ dz ٳٻϳݻ ݻ ݻ Ǫ ܳ ݳϳ ٻͳٳ۳ ٳ ѳ ˳ ݳ ѻûã
   ˳ݳ ߻ ѳ ٳ ѳۻ ܳ ϳ۳ ճϳ۳ ٳݳ ݻ 񳹳ݳ ݳݳѳۻ ǫ ݳ ϳ ݻǤ ѻ [163] û ܳ ѳ۳ó ݻ ݻ ݻ۳ݦ [164] 곫 ݹٻ -ݳϳ ϻݻ ߳
   dzųٳݳϫ ٵ ѳۻݪ ѳϳѳϳϳ ճϳ۳ ϳٳٵ ͳ ۳ ѳٳ ѳϩ

93
 
г ݻ ٳٻϳݻ ߳ó ٳϳ ݻݫ Գ񳵳ǰ ѳۻ ѻ ݳϳ ճϳ
ٳ ѳۻ ϳ ݫ ݻ ݫ ѳ û ճ ˳۳ݰ ٦
» ٳ Գ񳵳 ѳۻ -- ɳ ٫ ѳ ݻ ݻ ѳۻ ݫ ϻٳϳ 㿫 гϳϳ ѳ ѳۻ
Գ񳵳 ѳۻ ݳٳ ٳ ݻ ݻ ٫ ٻճ dzɳϳ ߳ó ݵݻ ѳٳ ݳ û ݻݦ
г۳ ϳͰ óϳݻ ߳ Գ񳵳ի ճ ѳۻ ˻ݫ ٻͳݻ ٳ ٳٻϳ ݳ [165]
ϻݻ ѻݻ 1988 é ݳ۳ ٻ ݳϳ ϻݳϳ 峷ݹ ųٳݳ ó ѳ ݳϳݻ ѳݷٳݳ ݳ۳ [166] ϳݫ ݳ ѳϳϳ ϻݣ

94

11 Գ񳵳۳ ߳ٳ ϳ

   ݹ񳹳ݳ 1988 é Գ񳵳۳ -ﳷϳ ݫ ó ۹ ѳϳٳ
 
ػӵϳ ߳ݻǫ ݳϳ ٳݳϳ ݻ ݷݻ ݻ ѳ-ݳϳ ѳϳٳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ݳ ߳ ϳ óϳ ճϳ ˳ݻ ٳ۳dzݻݫ óϳ ϳ˳ ϳɳdzǩ ٻݳϽ ߻ ݹ [167]
    ݳѳϳ ߳ û ݽ ɳ ٻݳϳ ݫ dz ˳ѳ۳ ٳ ݳѳ ۳ ϻ ݳ ϳٳϻ ѳϳϳ ˳ݳ ѳϳٳ۳ ˳ճ/ٳݳϳ ٳ ӳٳ ѳٳ ٫ ѳϳϳ ѻ ճ Գ񳵳۳ ׷ݳų ٳݳϳ ٳ ųٳݳϫ ݳ ݣ ٳݳݫ ѳϳ ݫ 7 ѻ ߳ݳ ϳ ݳ ѳۻ ݻ - "ٳݳϳ" ٦ [168] ϻ ͫ ߻ "ٳݳϳ" ٳ ճä ٻӵݻ ٳݳϳ ٳ "" ѳۻ ݻ ӻ ݻ ѳ û ѳϳٳ۳ ٻ ٻճ

95
߳ ٻ ۹ ɳ ɫ Գ񳵳 ѳۻ ݻ 1993 é ϳ ˳ѳ۳ ݳ ϳ ٳݣ 1997 é ݫ ٳݳ ϳ ݹݻ 糽 ݫ ϳٳϻ г۳ ٻ۳ ѳٳ ϳ Գ񳵳 ݻ ݫ dz û ͳɳ۳ٵ г۳ ѳٳ ݹӳ dz ϳݳݳ ݳ Գ񳵳٪ ѳݦ Armenias only practical chance for expansion came at the expense of Azerbaijan in Karabakh [169] ٻ ųݳ 峷ݹ ϳ ѳݻ ݳ˳ݻ ѳٳ ϳ ݣ ѳ г۳ г Գ񳵳 ۳ ݳdz ٳ attempted to take both Karabakh and parts of eastern Anatolia [170] ߳ ˳ݳ û

96
1918-1920 é г۳ ݻ ݻ Գ񳵳 ۳ г۳ û г۳ û ϳͻ ٳݻ ϳ ݣ г۳ ﳷ۳ ѳٳ ѳ Գ񳵳 ۳ ݳdz ٳ ٦ ٻ ݷ ϳϳ take ٳ ٻݳ ٳ ݻݦ ϳ ۳ɪ 鳽ٳϳ ݻ ݳ˳ ݳ ٻ take- ߳ݳ ûɫ ɦ ٳݳݹ ﳷͻ û ۳ г۳ݫ ۳ ݳdz ݳϳ ٵ óٳ ѳ óٳݻ ٻ pytavsheysya zapoluchit I Karabakh, I zemli vostochnoy Anatolii [171]:
   ٻݳѻ ϳݫ ųٳݳ ٳٵ ѳݹ ϻ Գ񳵳۳ ѳ٣ ٻ۳ -û ûǪ 1978 é 8- 15- ѳٳݻ ݳ ѳݹ ϻ Գ񳵳۳ ݹ ٳϳ ݳϦ ݻ Գ񳵳 ѳ۳ ٳ ٳݳ
 
Գ񳵳 ܳ ѳݻ ݻ ѻճϳ ϳϳݫ ٳϳݫ ˳ѳϳ ݻ гϳϳ ٳ ճ ٻݳѽ ϳϳ Ȼ۳ ճϳ۳ ѳٳӳݫ ݻ ٻ ߻ݫ û

97
 
ѳݫ ϳ ݻݳɣ Ǫ ϳϳ ϻ Գ񳵳 80 ѳϳϳ ݳݫ ٳ гϳϳ ѳ۳ ϳ ٻ ǫ ܳ ϳٻ ݳϳ ѳ۳ ٳ
û ѳ ݳۻ ٳϳ ۹ ݻ ɫ ݻ ٳϳ г۳ ٳ ݻ г۳ ѳ۳ ٳ
...û ˳ѳ۳ Գ񳵳 ܳ ˳ѳ۳ٵ ճ۳ٵ ϳ ٳ ɻݳ˳ǫ ϳ г۳ ܳ г۳ ٳ ݽ гϳϳ ѳ۳ٵ гϳϳ ɻݳ˳ ٳ Գ񳵳 ۹ ɻݳ˳ ٳ 񳵻٣
...ѳ ѳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 񳵻۳ ϳ ݫ Գ񳵳 ϳٳٵ ϳ ѻ ϳ ߳ó
[ ˳ݻ ѳٰ 񳹳 ϳ ɻ۳ ճϳݪ ٻ ٳ [172]
   г ٩ 廱 ѻɫ 1978 1993-1997 é ѳ ٳ ѳϳ ݻ Գ񳵳 ѳ٣ ˳ ߳ 1978 é ٻ۳ ճϳ۳ ӻ

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߳ݻ ۳ ٻ 1993 é ѻ ݷ ݻ ݣ سݳ Գ񳵳 ѳ - ѳݹ ݻ ٳ ٵϳ۳ Ͻ ѻ ٳٵ ٻ۳ ճϳ ݳ ѳ٪ ػӳ λݳϳ ݻ ݳ ݻճݻ ɳݻ ٻ۳ ۹ ճϳ۳ ٳ ٻ ٻ ߳ݳ ͳ ܲ0- ݹ dz ɳ ݹݣ
    ϻݻ ѳٳ Գ񳵳 ѳ ճϳ۳ ݷݻ ߻ ̻ ܻϳ۳ݻ ݪ Գ񳵳 ݹ 񳵻 ݻ ݹ ݻϵ ѳϳϳ
       1 1988 é ̻ ݹݻ ݳӻ ٳݳ񳵳 ϳ۳ ѳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ѳ ݳϳ ѳݻ to respect the legitimate aspirations of the Armenian people of Nagorno Karabagh ݳӻ ѳٳѻݳݻ ѳϳ ͻϳݻ ϳݽ ݳѳݷ γdz ݳѳݷ ᵻ γݽ ݳѳݷ
        2 1989 é 19- ̻ ݹݻ ݳӻ ٳݳ û

99
        ɻ ۳ ݳ˳ ˳ ݫ ݳ ߳ݳ ݷ ѳ ݻϳ۳ݻ ѻ ݳӻ ݹݻ ݻ ѻ۳ٵ ٳݳ ѻӳͪ ѳݹ ѳ ﷳٳݻ ѻ ݫ ݻ ݻ -
        ɻ ۳ ݳ˳ ˳ ݫ ݳ ݳݻ ϳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ݻϳ۳ݻ г۳ ϳ ߳ٳ ջϳ۳ݫ ݻ۳ ӳ Գ񳵳 ѻ г۳ ѳ dzݳ ѳݻ 񳵻۳ɩ ϻ ٻ ѳϳ ߳ ѳ ݹ Գ񳵳Ǫ г۳ ѳ dzݳ ѳ ѳ ۹ ѳ ݷɻ ݳ their demands of reunification with the Armenian homeland --
        ۳ ѻ ٳ ݳݻ ųٳݳ Գ񳵳 ѳ ۹ ϻݻ ѳ ٳ
        ۳ ѻ ٳ ݳݻ ųٳݳ ݹǫ ѳۻ ϳ ݳݻ ѻ ϳ ϳ ٻݳ ٳϳ ٻճ ѳݳ ݦ
    ݳӻ ѻݳ ϳ ͻϳ ɻ۵ ɻݹ ݳѳݷ
       3 1989 é ۻٵ 19- ̻ ܻϳ۳ݻ dzӳ ݹݻ ѳϳϳ 178 ߳ ѻϳ dz۳ ݳӻ ٳݳ

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178 dz۳ ݳӻ ѳ dz۳ ܳѳݷݻ г۳ Ǫ Գ񳵳 ѳ ˳ճ ӷݻݣ
dz۳ ܳѳݷݻ ٳϳ ߳ó ϳ г۳ ѻ
Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ѳϳϳݪ ϳ ٻͳٳ ߳ݳϳ ѳ ݳ٪ its desire for self-determination and freedom
Գ񳵳 ݻϳ ϳ׳ ۳ ϳ г۳ ѳݻ ݻ
۳ ϳ 28-29-ݪ ٷ ճ ٻ ճ ѳۻ ݻ
Գ񳵳 ѳۻ ϳٳٵ ߳ݳ ϳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 񳵻۳ ׳ ӻ ݷͳ ϳݻǫ ߳ݳ ͳ٩
Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 г۳ǰ ۳ ݳ г۳ ˳ ݻ óɳ ݷ۳ ٳݻ ѳۻǫ ۳ݫ ٻϳݻ ѳٳ 糽 ѳ۳ ˳ݻ 1988 é ٵ 7- г۳ ճ յϳ ߳ ѻ
dz۳ ܳѳݷݻ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 г۳ ݹٻ ݻ ӷٳ

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ݷ ѳ dz۳ ܳѳݷݻ ̻ ܻϳ۳ݻ ϳ ݫ dz۳ ܳѳݷݻ
3 ɻ ݳ˳ ݫ ݳ ϳݷ ϳ ϳ г۳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ѳۻ ݷ ϳݳհ ѳӳݻ ٩
4 ۳ ѻ ݳݻ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 Ǫ ۹ ϳ ѳ ݣ
   ٻݳѳϳ߳ϳ ݳӻ ׳ݳ Գ񳵳 ѳ ٻͳٳ۳ ٳ ݳ Գ񳵳 ϻ ٳ ݹѳϳ ۳
    ̻ dzӳ ݹݻ ѳϳϳ ݳӻ 1991 é ٳ 17- ̻ ݳӻ 128 26-ݣ ܻϳ۳ݻ ѻ dzӳ ݹݻ ݳ ݳӻ 1991 é 13-ݣ л ݳӻ г۳ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ϳݳ ݻ ݳݻ ݻ ߳ ͳݻ the blockades and other uses of force and intimation ݻ dz ݳϳ ϻ ճ ̻ 1992 é 29- ݹݳ ϳ۳ ճ ϳ г۳ г۳ -- ٳ -- Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ݳ Ǧ ٣ ٳٵ ϳݫ Գ񳵳 ѳۻ

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׳ݳ ٳ dz ٳϳ ɻ ݻ ٳ Ż۳ ٳ [173]
    ݻ ٳ ٳ ɻ ϳ ݳӻ ӳ ݳ˳ѳϳ ݻ ݳ۳ݫ ٻϳѳۻ ߳ѻ 1992 é ٵ 24-ݫ ݳ˳ [174]
    ѻ Ȼݳ Գ񳵳 ѳ ٻ۳ ճϳ ̻ ۳ ѳٻ ٳݳ ϳݷݳ ݳٳ ϳ ݷ
    񳹳ݳ Գ񳵳 ѳ ٻݳݻ ٳϳ۳ ϳ ɫ 1978 ϳ -ϳ ۳ݻ ѳݳϳݻ ٻͳ 1990-ϳݻ ۳ݻ ѳݳϳݻ γ ͫ ٻ ۳ ճϳ۳ ѻ ѳó ݻ ѳٳ Ͻ

12 س ѳݳݻ

    ѳٳ ߻ Ż ѳݳݻ
       1. ϳ۳ ٻ ݷ ѳۻ ߳ 1778 é ѳ ݳ ѳ ٦ The first

103
mention of an Armenian in Russian literature appeared in 1778 in an obscure poem by an obscure poet, V. Petrov [175] ݽ ۳ յ ͫ ٻϳ û ѳݳ ó û ͳͳ ˳ ϳ ݳ ݳ ѳ ݻ ի ѳ ϳ ۹ ѻ û ݻ ݳ ӳ ۳ ѳ-ϳ ϳ ϳ ۳ ٳ ٻݳݻ ݻ ٳݫ ѳۻ ϳͻ û ɻݻ ɤ ճ ݹ ϳ ѳ ݹٻ ݳݫ ݽ ѳ-ϳ ϳ ϳ ϳ۳ ٳݳ ͳ ٵ۳ٵ ﳹ ݳ ٳ [176] ϳ г۳ ѳۻ ѳ ߳ݳ ϳ۳ ٻ

104
۹ ϳ۳ Ͻݳٳ ݹٻ ݳݻ
        ۳ ٻ ݷ ѳۻ ߳ϻ 1080-1090-ϳ é ǻ-۳ г ѳٵ ݻ ѳ ѳݳݻ ٳݣ ݻ ǻ۳ dz ϳ ٻݳ ݳݻ٫ ݳ ϻ ݳϫ ǻ ٻ ˳ ڳɳ 1030-1093 ϳ ɳ ٳ 1053-1125 ųٳݳ Ƿ ˳ ۳ݻǣ гݳ ݳ ѳ ݫ ݽǫ Ͻݳյ ѳ ߻ ݳ ѳ׳ ׳ ˳ɪ << ... , >> [177]
        ػ г ϳ ϳ۳ Ǫ 1113 é ͫ ۳ ݻ ۳ݦ ( ) ѻ [178]
        ϳ ݳ ۳ٵ ѳ ó ɻݹdzݦ ( , ) [179]

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        سݳݻ ϳ ٳٳ ݻ Ƿ ϻ ݳ۳ ϳ۳ ٻ [180] гݳ ߳ Ͻٳݳ û ٳݳ γ ѻ 1530-1584 ϳ ݻ ׳ ϻջݻ ٻ Ƿ [181]
        ݪ ĸ-ļ ϳٳ ѳۻ ٳݳ ϳ ӻݫ ۳ ׳ϳٳݫ ӻ ݳ ϳ ݳ۳ ѻݻ [182]
        1778 é ѳۻ ߳ϻ ѳ ѻݳݻ ݫ ݳϪ ة ܩ ܩ ɻ Ʃ ة [183] ݳ ٻ ѳ ɫ û ߳ ջɫ ﻱ DZ ѳۻ ٳݩ 볫 û ѳݳݻ
    ݫ ݷ٫ ճ ݻɫ û ٳ ɣ ػ ѳٳٵ ϳ ѳۻ ϻ ߳ ϳ ݦ ǵ dz 1778 é

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       2 ݫ ٳ۳ ٻ ûݫ û ѳۻ dz ݳϳ ˳۳ ݻ ϳ ۳ ϳ ϳ۳ [184] л ٳݳɫ û û dzǫ ݳϳ ˳۳ ݻ ѳۻ ϳ DZû ͳ ٳϳ ѳѳ 1441 é ٻݳ г ϳ ѳ dz٫ ٻݳ г ϳ 񳷳 ׳ݳ ջ ѳۻ ӳ ٻͳٳ۳ ϱ ϻ ٳ - ϻ ѳ ѳۻ dzݳϳ ݻ 糹 ϻ ѳ ٳ ˳ݻɣ
       3 г ۳ ٻ ٳ ó ջ ϳݻ ӻ٦ most trade for much of Armenia history was in the hands of outsiders [185] » ѻû ϻ ٻ Ǧ dz ѳǫ ݽ ݳ յ ۳ ջ ϳ ջɣ

13 ٳ

   ػ ݹ񳹳ݳӳ ˳ݻ ϻݻ ݹٻ ٳݣ û ٣ ϳ ٻ ۹ ϳ г۳ ѻݳ ٻṳݳϳ ݹѳ ϳ ûݻ

107
       1 ѳ ٳ Ż ϳ յݻ ﳷٳ ۳ Ͻݳյݻ ݫ ݻ ٳϳ ݳݻ ȳͳ յϳ Ż ݳ˳ٳ ٳϳ ˳ ѳٳ ۳ ٻ ݷdz ݷ ٵ ϳ
 
ٳϳ ݹ ݳ ݳ ݫ ߳ ݫ û ۹ ݹ ٳ ٳϳ ۳ ݳ۳ݣ ջϳ ݻϳ۳ س۳ ׳ϳٳ ٳ ׳ û ۹ ٳ ݻ [186]
    ի ճ ǫ û ٳݳݻ DZ ѳ ۳ ѳݷ ѳ ٳݣ
    ٻṳݳϳ ݳϳ ˳ ǫ ݳ ۳ݫ ٳݳ ѳ ۳ ϳݫ ݳϳݫ ϳ û ӳϳ ۳ ѳ׳ ݳ ݷ ϳ۳ ٻ
        ûݻ ݩ
        ٻŻ ѳ۳۳ ѳ۳
        ճϳ ɳ

108
        ѳ ճ ϻ ϻ ѻ Ͻݳյݻ ϳ ݳݻ
        Ͻݳյݻ ˳ û٩
        Ͻݳյݻ ѳ ϻ٣

    ٫ ϳ ٻṳݳϳ ˳ ˳ ٻݳ ݻ ѳ۳ϳ ݻ ϳ ϳ Ͻݳյݻ ٳݳϳ ϳ۳ ˻ϳϳ ׳ ѳ ٳ û ݳ г۳ ճϳ ݻ ݳϳ ϳ ߻ ϳ Ż ճϳ ٳϳ ߳
   ٳݳ ϳݫ ˳ ϻ ٻ۳ ٻݳѻݳϳ ݻ ٻ٫ ɻ ϳݣ ݻ ϳ ѻ߳ ϳ ٻ۳ ѳ۳۳ݦ ճϳݳ ݳ ѳ ˳ ٻݳѻݳϳ ٳϳ ѳݹݻ ٻ٪ American Historical Review- 19000 ų ѳ - ѻݳ ѳ۳ݻ ɳͳ ᵻ ѳ
 
ݳɹ Ƿ ѳ г۳ ˳ ջ ٳ ٳݳݻ ٻ ѳٵ ܳ ׳ ɳ ͫ ɳ ǽ ݻ ѻݳ ų ݳۻ ݻի ݳϳ 볹 ݹ: ܳ , ݻ ѳٳ ѳϳϳ ٳ ٳϳ,

109
 
ӻ dz, ݳ۳ݻ ߳ݳ ѳ ѳݻ ݳ ݻ ٳݻ: Ż ϳ, ѻݳϳ ٻݳϳ ͻ ٻ

ݻ ѳ, dz г۳ ųݳѳ ۳ (۹ ), dz ٻͳ ٻ ѳϳ ˳ г۳ [ ] ٳ, ɻ ﳹ ѻ ѳ ٳ۳ ݳ ˳ (ݹݻ . .):
[With this book, Ronald Grigor Suny confirmshis statute as one of the leading authorities on contemporary Armenia and its place in the modern world. An eloquent writer, well trained, broad in his vision, and willing and able to look beyond narrow, nationalistic perspectives, he has done more than anyone to raise the field of modern Armenian historiographi to the level of sophistication that the stady of the Soviet Union long ago attained but wich for so many decades has eluded historians of the various Soviet nationalities. Anything that Suny writes is worth reading, and this is one of the most important works that he has produced
With this collection of essays, Suny has not only laid the foundations for a definitive history of Soviet Armenia (which still needs to be written) and greatly advanced our understanding of Armenia in the modern world but has also produced the first major work of post-Soviet Armenian historiography.] [187]:

110
   ٻ۳ ݻǦ ѳ ӳݳ The Russian Review- ݳѳ ճ ɫ ϳ ݻ ٵ λݳϳ ѻϳ ۳ ۳ ͳ۳ ϳ л [188] ݻ ˳ ܸ dz٤ dz 볫 ۳ ѳٳӳݫ 񳵳 ٳ ݳ ݻɫ û ŵ лǪ
 
ݻ ߳ ѳ׳ ۳ ݻϳ۳ݻ ϳ ӷݻ ݻ ݻ ó г۳ ջ ѳٳݰ ͳѻ ݳ ٵ۳ٵ ͫ ѳ׻ :
[The history of small peoples is too often written by people of the same ethnic origin or advocates of their aspiration. During the twentieth century, Armenia has been an extreme example of this tendency. Taken as a whole, this book is a welcome exception] -ݹ [189]

111
   л ݳ г ݻ ѻݳݻ ϳݫ ѳ Ǫ dzݷٳ ٳ ݳѳϳ ٻϳѳ ѳٳ ߳ ɫ ɪ 񳵻 ϳdzϳ ݳϳݻ ѳͦ ݳϳ ٻ۳ ѳ۳۳ݦ ϳϳ ݻϳ۳ ݫ ݳ ϳ л ɳ ϳ ɫ лǪ ϳ ѳ û ݳϳ ۳ г۳ ٳ гۻ ѳ ϳ ݫ û ѳٳӳ ݳ۳ óϻɣ ϳ Ȼ ۳ ų ѳ۳ ɫ ݳ ۳ ݻ ݤ ٻ۳ г۳۳ ٻϳѳ ѳ񳵻ݻ ٻճ ٻϳѳ ǵ ݹѳ ϳ ݳ the chauvinistic debate which proceeds in uninterrupted fashion throughout the community ٻ۳ ѳ۳ݻ ݳݳϳ ճϳ ϳ ϳ ݻ prior political or chauvinistic expectations ݻݳ ٻ [190] ۳ ϳݦ ٳݪ

112
   ٵ ϻݻ ѳٳ ó۳ݦ ٳݻ ߻ ݻ ݻ۳ ѳ ջݻ ٳ ϳ ϻ ٻݻ ۳ٵ ڸݳ۳ ϳ Armenian Review- 1979 1980 1983 é ѳٳݻ [191] ϳ 㿫 1989 é ѳݹ ٵ ݻ Գ񳵳 ѳ ѳ ѳٳ ۳ ٵ guest editor ɫ ѳϳϳ ϳ ϻ ݳϳ ϻͳݻ ѳٻ ³ [192] - ѳ۳ϳ ݳϳ ѳݹݻǪ Armenian Review Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies Armenian Forumǫ ٵϳ ɻdzݻ ݹ ϻݻ ѳ ۳ ٳ ٻ۳ ݳݻ ݳ ϳ ɻݻ ٻ ѳ óٳ [193] ݫ ѳ۳ ٳݳ ݳ ѳ۳ϳ ݻ ݣ

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    ٻ ݳ ӻ ݳ ׳ ѳ ٳݳ ٻϳѳ ߳ ٳݻ ѳ ѳ۳ݪ ѳ ۳ ٳ ݻ ٻݳѳ ͳ۳ ٳݦ [194] ϳݫ ѳ ٻ г۳ ݳϳݻ ٻ ٻݳٻ ٻݳݷ ѳٵ ٳ ݳ ѳ۳ݻ յ 峷 ժ г۳ˣ ϻݻɫ û ѻݻ ݳ ݻ
   ݪ ٳݳ ϳ۳ ͳ ճϳ ѳϳٳݻ ѳ ͪ 1997 é г۳ ϳ ǣ » ٳ ѳٳ ٻ г۳ ϳݫ ٫ û ݷ٫ ݳ۳ ó ŷ ѳϳѳ ѳ۳ ٳݳݻ ѳ ϳɳ û ճϳ [195]

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